51; Saturn is known for its rings, and some small moons have been found inside its rings. But wouldn’t it be strange if some of its moons had rings of their own? Such a thing had not been widely considered before 2007, when there was a tentative detection of a ring around Rhea (see 03/10/2008). That ring has not been confirmed by subsequent observations. The thinking now, however, is that it used to be there – and not only there, but there might have been one around Iapetus, too.Rhea ring tones: Paul Schenk, planetologist at Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston and stereo animation wizard, was glad to be able to share his secrets at his blog 3D House of Satellites now that his paper in Icarus was published.1 The paper concerned color patterns on Saturn’s inner moons Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, and Rhea. All of them show evidence of plasma stains and electron discolorations from the magnetosphere and E-ring, some on the leading hemispheres and some on the trailing hemispheres, or both. The last section of the paper is the intriguing one: “A ring at Rhea?” The authors acknowledged that the cameras couldn’t see a ring the plasma and magnetospheric instruments thought they had detected earlier, but Schenk noticed a chain of blue splotches along the equator, only 20 km wide, going almost all the way around the moon. Could these be the smoking gun of a ring that was there but partly collapsed onto the surface? “Well,” he said on his blog, “we don’t need the ring to be present today to explain the ultraviolet splotches on the surface. They could have formed a few thousand or million years ago and still exist on the surface today. Probably not much longer than that but that’s [sic] very young for the Solar System.” To see these blue features that might mark impact points of ring boulders driven into the surface, look at the JPL news feature or fly over them on Schenk’s YouTube page. Schenk’s StereoMoons blog entry from 02/25/2010 has the best close-up photos of the blue streaks. Strangely, the orientation of the features suggest that the ring rotated in the wrong direction – retrograde to the orbit of the moon and Saturn. Where did the particles come from? The authors doubted that it could have been debris from one of Rhea’s largest and youngest impact craters. Whatever the impactors were, “the strong bluish color indicates that formation occurred recently and these may be among the most recently formed features on the surface,” the paper said. “On the other hand, the surface features we observe might date from an earlier time, as no bright rays have been observed in association with the equatorial deposits. This would imply that sufficient time has lapsed for ray erasure to have occurred but not sufficient time to erase the blue crater rims associated with relatively young impact craters elsewhere on Rhea.” In short, this means they don’t know. The latter suggestion (of old age) sounds ad hoc; Schenk’s true feelings are probably reflected by his blog statement that they are “very young for the Solar System.” Interesting how he can thrown “thousand or million” years around without blinking an eye.Iapetus ring bumps: The detection of possible ring impact debris on one moon opened up a search for others. (On Saturn, of course, ring debris that falls into the planet disappears into the fluid clouds). None of the other major moons have an equatorial signature like Rhea’s, but Iapetus, that walnut mimic way out in the suburbs (picture), has its mysterious equatorial mountain range (see 01/07/2005, 09/13/2007). Schenk thinks that the evidence at Rhea supports the theory that the mountain range is debris from a collapsed ring (see Geophysical Research Letters paper by W.-H Ip). The idea gains a little support from a couple of small moons, Atlas and Pan, that have a pronounced saucer shape that might indicate deposition of ring material during their histories (see Cassini image). The alternative, the spin-up theory (see 03/01/2006, bullet 2), got more press from National Geographic this week. Both the exogenic and endogenic theories require highly special conditions (e.g., 07/18/2007) that are running rings around planetary scientists.Speaking of moons, Cassini was a “weekend warrior” on a major moon hunt last week. It observed nine moons in just 62 hours. A few of the early unprocessed images were posted by the Cassini Imaging Team. The new images of Dione revealed a major area that is remarkably smooth and devoid of large craters. “The smooth plains must have been resurfaced at some point in Dione’s past,” the caption said. Whatever caused that must remain a story to tell.1. Schenk, Hamilton, Johnson, McKinnon, Paranicas, Schmidt and Showalter, “Plasma, plumes and rings: Saturn system dynamics as recorded in global color patterns on its midsize icy satellites,” Icarus,
There will be a travelling three-dimensional reconstruction of the prison cell where Mandela was incarcerated for 18 of his 27 years behind bars.The initiative comes 19 years after the end of apartheid, as a “born-free” generation – those young South Africans born into a democratic nation – deals with 21st century concerns rather than looking back on its history.(Images: Cape Town Tourism)MEDIA CONTACTS • Jacqueline Cawston Serious Games Institute +27 16 910 3277RELATED ARTICLES • Mandela prison anniversary marked • Schools to benefit for Mandela Day • Mandela TV series to start production • Liliesleaf: keeping the memory alive • MK: in pursuit of libertyCadine PillayA multimedia project, Mandela 27, will bring the tales of Robben Island to life digitally as part of a new international campaign. Mandela 27 aims to highlight the social events that influenced change in South Africa and Europe during Mandela’s 27 years in prison.It was in launched at Cape Town’s gateway to Robben Island and will draw on cultural links between South Africa and Europe during the apartheid era. It is estimated it will cost about R5-million; part of the funding will come from the European Union.Mandela 27 partners are the Robben Island Museum, Britain’s Coventry University, the European Union’s Cultural Programme, Belgium’s Creative Stories project, and Elderberry, a content developer.Mandela’s travelling prison cellMost of the stories will be told through an interactive website with a map interlinking events of activism in South Africa and Europe.There will also be a video game that will be used as an educational tool to teach children about the island and anti-apartheid activists.Letters, poems and stories from the former political prisoners written between 1960 and 1990 will be exhibited at the Robben Island Museum Gateway at the V&A Waterfront and on the island.There will also be a travelling three-dimensional reconstruction of the prison cell where Mandela was incarcerated for 18 of his 27 years behind bars.The game and other digital components will be ready by February 2014, while the cell will start travelling in May 2014.Thousands of tourists visit Mandela’s former cell on Robben Island, a UN world heritage site almost 10km from the mainland.The replica of the cell will be a low-budget affair made of plywood but will feature information panels and multimedia exhibits. The travelling cell is likely to be displayed in schools, libraries and museums.The video game is described as a serious game in the style of a graphic novel, and not purely for entertainment. Based on interviews with former prisoners, it features five recurring elements of life in the remote jail: prisoners were not allowed to see children; they craved physical activity including football; education was a key pursuit; communications were heavily censored so that messages had to be smuggled; and hunger strikes were used to make existence bearable.It is being developed by South African students with help from the Serious Games Institute based at Coventry University’s technology park in the United Kingdom.Cultural lesson for born-freesThe initiative comes 19 years after the end of apartheid, as a “born-free” generation – those young South Africans born into a democratic nation – deals with 21st century concerns rather than looking back on its history.Elderberry’s David Powell said the target audience was 16- to 25-year-olds as the events took place before they were born. But, he added, players should not expect to find themselves in the role of Mandela himself as it was more likely that anonymous characters would be used.The untold talesJacqueline Cawston, the programmes director at the Serious Games Institute, stayed on Robben Island for three days during her research, and insists the story of the cultural events has not been told.“The way that we’re telling it will be engaging to an audience that hasn’t read history books and weren’t alive at this time,” she said. “The whole point of the project is to get the message out there. This graphic novel will depict life as it was on Robben Island.”Sibongiseni Mkhize, the museum’s chief executive, added: “This comes at a time when we are trying to improve the manner of how we tell what happened at Robben Island.”He said the project was about sharing untold stories of those imprisoned on the island for their political activism. It was also a way of creating inter-cultural dialogue internationally and sharing knowledge. “All those things were political.The poems, songs were a way for the political prisoners to get their message outside,” Mkhize said. “We want to tell story of not just Mr Mandela, but the values which he and other political prisoners shared on Robben Island.”There were plans for a reunion of former prisoners on the island later this year. Mandela, who was recently in hospital for tests, had not been consulted about
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest We should be able to pick off a mostly dry day over Ohio today. Honestly, today should look very similar to yesterday. Heat is making its presence known and humidity values are creeping up too. We still can’t rule out a couple of pop of showers, but generally there is nothing to see here, today.Better organized shower and thunderstorm activity moves in for tomorrow . We expect the showers to arrive in western parts of Ohio around mid morning and then spend the rest of the day working through the state. The most frequent showers end by evening, or at least before midnight. But then for Friday, we expect some additional scattered action. The Friday precipitation, though, will be skewed in its coverage farther south, mostly over the southern half to one third of the state. Overall, we can expect .2”-.7” of rain with 70% coverage combined over the 2-day period. This is part of a frontal complex that will be moving in from the west and north.The main feature of our forecast this morning is the remains of tropical system Gordon. Gordon will be making landfall later this week in MS and LA and will then work north through the lower and mid-Mississippi valley, before hooking northeast. Gordon will start to push into SW Indiana Saturday. However, we do not think that we see anything from this storm complex through the day Saturday in Ohio. Here, we have rains for Sunday and Monday being most intense. Those days can bring at least 1-3″ to 100% of the state, and we think that there will be some 4 inch totals. If we are being completely honest this morning, we have a concern in the back of our minds that that rain totals can actually exceed the 4” upper bound (see the map below), but we will be conservative for now, as the overall rain totals will be completely dependent on the track that Gordon’s remains take.Leftover showers hold through the day Tuesday and can add .1″-.5″ to our cumulative rain totals. Once again, we see the better chances at those Tuesday rains in the southern and eastern parts of the state, and not as much NW, but we don’t want to get too cute, with backside moisture still trying to rotate over the far eastern corn belt. Wednesday also looks damp with a few more scattered showers bringing a few hundredths to .4″ to 60% of the state. This should bring to an end the wettest part of our entire forecast. The map at right shows cumulative rain potential now through next Wednesday.After all of that, we do eventually get a nice dry period starting next Thursday, stretching through the end of the 10-day period on Friday. We also will start off the 11-16 day extended period with more dry weather for the weekend through the following Monday. Our next chance of rain looks to develop around the 18th and 19th (Tuesday and Wednesday) with rain totals of half to 1.5” coming from slow moving rains moving across the state. We expect 90% coverage from that system. Then we go back to dry weather for the 20th on forward through at least the 23rd.Temperatures will be warm again today, as we have already hinted at above. Yesterday was a “to 10” day when compared to all previous September 4th’s on record, as most of the state was near or above 90 degrees. Heat indexes were higher. Today and tomorrow will be well above normal again, but then, as rains intensify Friday through the weekend and early next week, we see temps pull back to normal and below normal levels. However, the cooler push will be tough to notice, as humidity levels will be high, it will be stuffy and therefore feel much warmer. Then, the balance of our forecast sees temps go back above normal for the rest of the 10-day period and the extended window as well. We will need the warmer temps to help with dry down after all of the rain over the next 6 days.
TagsTransfersAbout the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say New Inter Milan chief Marotta adds Mourinho to shortlistby Paul Vegas10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveInter Milan are eyeing Manchester United boss Jose Mourinho for a second spell.The Sunday Express says Inter are considering parting company Luciano Spalletti next summer after they crashed out of the Champions League and trail leaders Juventus by 14 points in Serie A.Mourinho is one of the names Inter chief Giuseppe Marotta is considering along with former Chelsea boss Antonio Conte should they not extend Spalletti’s contract which runs out at the end of the season.Mourinho arrived at United in 2016 to replace Louis van Gaal and he won the Europa League and League Cup in his first season.But this season has seen up upset with the United board over their failure to sign a central defender before the summer transfer window closed.
Legendary artist Steven Tyler, who performed on Wednesday with Aerosmith at the Xfinity Center Mansfield, is asking Massachusetts lawmakers to ban the locking of breeding pigs and veal calves in crates so small they can’t turn around.The rock icon states: “Massachusetts holds a very special place in my heart. Not only is it known for being ahead of the curve on important progressive issues, but it’s also the birthplace of my band Aerosmith. That’s why I was thrilled to learn from my friends at The Humane Society of the United States about S.2232, a critical bill that would ban the extreme confinement of animals used for food. Veal crates and gestation crates cause unspeakable suffering and with the success of crate-free environments, they are proven unnecessary. I hope to see the passage of S.2232 without delay.”Alexis Fox, Massachusetts state director for The HSUS, said: “Massachusetts has a significant historical, cultural and commercial role in American history and that includes being home of one of the greatest rock icons of all time. S. 2232 is supported by a broad coalition of farmers, veterinarians, public health experts, chefs, environmental protection organizations, animal lovers and Steven Tyler. All of us simply want to ensure that these cruel crates do not have a place in the Commonwealth.”The legislature has two weeks left to pass this critical legislation. Ten other states including Rhode Island and Maine have already passed similar farm animal protection laws. For more information, please visit humanesociety.org/mafarmanimals.Source:Humane Society
OSU junior guard Kelsey Mitchell guards the ball in the Buckeyes 89-56 victory over Canisius on Dec. 11 at the Schottenstein Center. Credit: Courtesy of Ohio State AthleticsBehind 51.5 percent shooting and a solid defensive effort, the No. 12 Ohio State Buckeyes downed the Canisius Golden Griffins 89-56 on Sunday afternoon.“I thought our effort, our attention-to-detail was better than it’s been,” OSU coach Kevin McGuff said. “We’ve practiced better.”Both teams shot well out of the gate and the Golden Griffins took an 11-9 lead with 5:48 remaining in the first quarter. The No. 12 Buckeyes (8-3) would then outscore Canisius 22-7 the rest of the opening quarter, a stretch that included an 11-0 run and eight made field goals in a row. The teams played just about even in the second quarter, with the Buckeyes edging out Canisius 19-16 in the frame.OSU missed its first four shots of the second half, but a field goal from junior guard Kelsey Mitchell with 7:11 remaining in the third quarter started an 8-0 run for the Buckeyes. OSU would take a 69-44 run into the fourth quarter and would outscore the Golden Griffins 20-12 in the final frame to claim the 33-point victory.Mitchell led the Buckeyes with 19 points on 9-of-17 shooting. The Buckeyes buried 16-of-21 free throws, and despite converting on over half of its field goals, OSU was just 3 for 18 from three-point territory.“We have good shooters, but we didn’t shoot the ball very well today from the arc,” McGuff said. “That’s something that we’ve got to get in the gym and work on a little bit.”Canisius was led by 14 points from sophomore forward Sara Hinriksdottir. Senior guard Lauren D’Hont grabbed a team-high eight rebounds.Defensive improvementOSU put together one of its better defensive performances of the season on Sunday. Of the Buckeyes’ 21 forced turnovers, 15 were steals. Canisius shot well early from the three-point line – 7 of 16 in the first half – but they finished just 10 for 31 from beyond the arc and couldn’t get anything else going.“I thought our press today was as good as it’s been in a couple weeks,” McGuff said. “We really gave Canisius problems.”The Buckeyes didn’t allow the Golden Griffins to see the free-throw line at all and committed just eight team fouls. All nine Buckeyes who saw the floor had two personal fouls or less. McGuff praised his team for a solid defensive game, but acknowledged that there were still several hiccups.“We had 4, 5, 6, 7 possessions where we had really good possessions and then just didn’t finish them out,” McGuff said. “We were close to having a really good day defensively.”For the game, Canisius shot 34.8 percent (23-for-66).Bench pointsAnother Buckeye advantage came in bench points, where OSU outscored Canisius 40-6. The bench effort was led by freshman forward Tori McCoy, who scored 17 points on 7-of-8 shooting and grabbed 11 rebounds. She was also 3 of 3 from the free throw line.Redshirt sophomore forward Makayla Waterman had one of her best games on the young season, adding nine points, nine rebounds and a team-high five assists. Freshman guards Kiara Lewis (10 points) and Jensen Caretti (four points) also contributed off the bench.“As we go through the year, depth is going to be a real strength of ours,” McGuff said. “Today, I thought we had some really good minutes off the bench.”OSU’s current depth has been well documented, but the Buckeyes are about to get even deeper. Redshirt junior guard Linnae Harper is just days away from regaining eligibility and will be available to play in OSU’s next game against Alabama State on Friday.“She’ll bring a lot of defense, rebounds and points,” OSU junior guard Asia Doss said. “That means way more depth as far as our rotations and the pressing, I feel like, is going to be even more hectic.”Harper decided to transfer from the University of Kentucky last fall.Up nextOSU will finish off its current five-game home stand with a game against the Alabama State Hornets on Friday. Tipoff is set for 7 p.m. at Schottenstein Center.